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July 10, 2024

India Overhauls Criminal Justice System with Three New Landmark Laws

New Delhi, July 10, 2024 – In a historic move aimed at modernizing the country’s criminal justice system, India has introduced three revolutionary new criminal laws. The enactment of these laws marks a significant shift from the colonial-era statutes that have governed the nation for over a century.

1. The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Replacing the Indian Penal Code (IPC) of 1860, the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita aims to streamline the criminal code to be more in line with contemporary Indian values and international human rights standards. Key features include:

  • Revised Definitions and Classifications: Updating archaic terms and categories to reflect modern understanding and societal changes.
  • Stricter Penalties for Gender-Based Violence: Enhanced punishments for crimes against women and children, aiming to deter such offenses more effectively.
  • Focus on Rehabilitation: Emphasis on rehabilitative measures for certain categories of offenders, aiming to reduce recidivism and aid in societal reintegration.

2. The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) Replacing the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) of 1973, the BNSS introduces more efficient procedures for the investigation and prosecution of crimes. Highlights include:

  • Digital Integration: Adoption of digital technology for faster and more transparent case management and evidence handling.
  • Victim-Centric Approach: Enhanced provisions for victim protection and support, including compensation schemes and witness protection programs.
  • Time-Bound Trials: Introduction of strict timelines for the completion of investigations and trials to ensure swift justice.

3. The Bharatiya Sakshya Sanhita (BSS) Replacing the Indian Evidence Act of 1872, the BSS modernizes the rules of evidence to ensure fair trials and accurate verdicts. Key aspects include:

  • Admissibility of Digital Evidence: Clear guidelines on the admissibility and handling of digital and electronic evidence in court.
  • Enhanced Forensic Support: Strengthening the role of forensic science in criminal investigations, ensuring more scientific and accurate outcomes.
  • Streamlined Evidence Collection: Simplification of evidence collection procedures to prevent delays and ensure the integrity of the judicial process.

Above are the three criminal laws which came into force. 

Reactions and Implications The introduction of these laws has garnered widespread attention and sparked discussions across the nation. Legal experts, human rights activists, and the general public have welcomed the reforms, hailing them as a much-needed upgrade to India’s criminal justice system.

“This is a monumental step towards a more just and equitable legal framework,” said Anjali Gupta, a prominent human rights lawyer. “The focus on victim protection and digital integration is particularly commendable.”

However, some critics argue that the implementation of these laws will pose significant challenges, especially in terms of training law enforcement and judicial officers to adapt to the new procedures. “While the laws are a step in the right direction, their success will largely depend on how effectively they are implemented on the ground,” noted Professor Rajesh Sharma, a legal scholar.

Looking Forward As India embarks on this new chapter in its legal history, the coming months will be crucial in determining the impact of these landmark laws. With a commitment to justice and modernization, the country aims to set a new standard for criminal law that reflects its dynamic and evolving society.


This news article provides a comprehensive overview of the new criminal laws while highlighting their significance and potential impact.

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Arundhati Roy

Arundhati Roy

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